Supply chain management with inbound logistics is a very strategic perspective. In fact, supply chains, which have become multifaceted due to the change in the perimeter of organizations over the past forty years, imply better coordination of physical and information flows between industrial, commercial and service companies that are jointly involved in the value creation process.
The resulting management of intra-organizational and inter-organizational interfaces is no longer limited to a simple technical measurement of stream optimization in outbound logistics. This includes questions on how to think and implement a collective logistics project. In other words, we are talking about building and managing business relations in order to ensure optimal management of logistics activities in supply chain networks under the best conditions of cost, quality of service and efficiency (flexibility).
The competition between logistics companies is fundamentally transforming. Awareness of the urgency of society in the field of sustainable development also means the imagination of new forms of collective action that support logistics strategies based on pooling resources between partners, especially in congested urban spaces that require a coordinated management policy for transport and storage activities.
The chapter wishes to consider the logistic approach as a single dimension of strategic actions with reference to the extremely collective aspects that underlie the management of the flow of products and related information. It is really important to understand why and how industrial, commercial and service companies interact with each other for a long period of time to develop, manufacture and distribute products under the best conditions of cost, quality of service and efficiency. Thus, the study of the fundamentals of the logistics process relates, at the first stage, to the study of the management of internal and interorganizational interfaces, and then at the second stage the question of construction and management is raised. multi-stakeholder supply chain relationships. This allows us to consider the latest trends in collective strategies at the third stage, especially regarding the practice of pooling logistics resources.
Over the course of a generation, the logistics process has undergone radical changes in its status and identity in most Western countries. For a long time, being limited to managing (and then mastering) a certain number of elementary operations related to transporting products to their markets, now it is perceived as an important strategic element for establishing a competitive advantage. sustainable, in particular, allowing companies to fully focus on the client. Thus, organizations have moved from a logistic model, which we will describe as controlled by gravity, in which supply dominates, to a logistic model, which we will qualify as controlled, in which demand dominates.
As soon as products leave our facilities, they fall into a logistics chain (inbound logistics or sales chains), which can be more or less long depending on the number of intermediaries that separate our factory from the end users of our products, or outbound logistics. If our company produces convenience goods, our products are likely to be delivered to distributors and then to retailers. However, our company may be located upstream from other manufacturers.
Let’s repeat our example. Perhaps the plastic parts we bought are used to make batteries for the automotive industry.
Finally, there is the fourth chain, the reverse supply chain. Its starting point is the end user, who sends his waste for recycling, but in fact the return chain can begin with any organization that returns materials to upstream enterprises. This return may be surplus goods, containers or packaging materials. It can also be recyclable waste, which is transferred to companies specializing in the recovery of materials, and which then re-enter them into the chain. Together, upward, downward and reverse logistics form an external supply chain (as opposed to an internal supply chain), and by combining an internal chain and an external chain, we get a global supply chain. In a broader sense, the intersection of supply chains forms a large logistics network consisting of all companies that supply each other with goods and services.